Analyzing the effects of urban development on flooding in the cities (Case study: Birjand City)

Document Type : Scientific and Research


1 Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

2 Student of Geography, Department of Geography, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran


It is increasingly recognized that the land-use change, especially urbanization has influenced hydrological attributes intensely. But in most urban designs, flood prediction is considered through type of land use (residential, industrial, and so on) and density. However, experiences show that this method has not been very successful. As a result, the present study aims to investigate and explore a different method in Birjand city. The study primarily emphasizes on the relationship between parameters of hydrologic models and features of urban development as well as scenarios considered in comprehensive plan. Data required for the study were obtained through investigation of existing documents and studies, particularly regarding comprehensive plan of Birjand City. Evaluation has been performed using urban hydrologic models and applying geographic information systems regarding prediction of surface currents corresponding to different urban scenarios. The results showed that in comprehensive plan the effects of increasing impervious surfaces and their effect on increasing water runoff have not been emphasized. This issue has led to an increase in runoff and consequently flooding. The model used in the study indicated that in heavy rains with return period of 25 years, flooding is mainly associated with blocking of water flow at the mouth of bridges. Moreover, this method is compatible enough with conditions of Iran and can be used in similar situations. 


  1. Abdi, P. (2007). To investigate the potential of Zanjan River flood basin with OSCE monitoring and GIS, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 2(17): 33-22.
  2. Amir Ahmadi, A., Behniafar, A., Abraham, M. (2012). Micro-zoning of flood risk in the city of Sabzevar in line with sustainable development, Environment Treatment Quarterly, 16: 32-17.
  3. Campana, N.A. (2001). Prediction floods in the Diluvio Basin, porto Alegre, Brazil, Elsevier.
  4. Campana, N.A., Mendiondo, E.M. (1994). Percepicion Remote Cordoba, Brazil, Trac center, Anais.
  5. Habibi, K., Pourahmad, A., Meshkini, A. (2016). Improvement and modernization of old tissues urban, Entekhab Publishing, Tehran.
  6. Javan, J. and Fal Solomon, M. (2007). Implementing projects in arid and semi-arid watersheds of Iran (watershed Birjand), Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 6: 50-27.
  7. Jensen, S.K., Doming, J.O. (1988). Extracting Topographic Structure from Digital elevation data for Geographic information system analysis, Photogrametric Engineerin and Remote Sensing, London, 54(11): 1593-1600.
  8. Khorasan Agricultural Jihad (2002). Air and climate project feasibility report productivity of flood plains in the East of Birjand, first, Mashhad, Natural Resources and Livestock Research Center.
  9. Lindh, G. (1994). Flooding cities, translator M. Bzrg Zadh, published Rudaki.
  10. Mahmoodzadeh, H., Amamykya, W., Rasouli, M. (2016). Micro-zoning of flood hazard in Tabriz district using AHP, Geographical Research Quarterly, 116: 180-167.
  11. Ministry of Agricultural Jihad (2001). Geological mapping, soil and ... the city of Birjand.
  12. Motta, L.C., Tucci, C.E.M. (1984). Simulation of Urbanization effect in Flow, Hydrological Science Journal, 29(2): 21-30.
  13. Rasouli, M. (2015). Factors affecting urban flood damage reduction, a case study of Ferdows, a master's thesis Geography and Urban Planning, the tips of Rostam Sabrifar, PNU.
  14. Saberifar, R. (2013). The study of physical development Birjand with standard environmental hazards, ecological-geological studies of urban, 6: 97-87.
  15. Saberifar, R. (2006). Uncontrolled urbanization and social consequences and cultural, sphere Magazine, 56: 21-33.
  16. SCS. (1975). Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, Washington, US Department of Agriculture (Technical Release, No. 55), Washington.
  17. Shiea, I. (2004). Introduction to urban planning, Thirteenth Edition, Tehran, publisher of Science and Technology.
  18. Simons, D., Steves, M. (1975). On Overland Flood Water Routing in National Symposium on Urban Hydrology and Sediment Control, UN press, Kentucky.
  19. Tucci, C.E.M. (1987). Hydraulic and Water Quality Model for a River Network, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Co, Colorado.
  20. United Nations, Development Program (2004). A global report Reducing disaster risk, Development, 267: 2541-2553.
  21. Velayati, S. (1992). Resources and Water Issues of Khorasan, Astan Quds Razavi, Mashhad.
  22. Weather Station Birjand (2016). Statistics meteorological station, Station Birjand.
  23. Zysta Consulting Engineers (2005). A comprehensive plan in Birjand, Volume I, Tehran, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.